Database management is a system of managing the information that is used to support a company's business operations. It involves storing data, disseminating it to applications and users and editing it as required and monitoring changes to data and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is an element of a company's overall informational infrastructure, which supports decision-making and growth of the company as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.
In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up ceen.udd.cl with the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.
A database is a set of tables that arrange data according to a certain scheme, like one-to many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records, and also allows cross-references among tables. Each table has a set of fields called attributes that provide information about data entities. The most widely used kind of database is a relational model created by E. F. "Ted" Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also simpler to update data since it doesn't require the modification of several databases.
Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is focused on cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level determines how the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on different data models) and can also include virtual tables that are constructed from generic data to improve performance.